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Hi, If I read the post correctly you removed the collet from the nut. Here's a picture of the parts of a collet.
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Bosch's collet and nut are one piece and you should NOT disassemble it. The collet is a very precisely machined part. The difference between a tight and loose collet is a few thousandths of an inch. It is easily distorted. If that has happened, you may need to replace it.

Second point is that the threads on the spindle are quite fine and that means you may need to be very careful about starting the thread correctly so it doesn't get cross threaded.

Looking at your picture, it doesn't look like this so the metal above the spindle should not be there. If it's the collet or some other part, it is in the way of the nut. If I'm seeing this correctly, whatever is in the spindle doesn't belong there and may need to be removed. If it is the collet, removing it using any force or pliers will likely distort it. If it is distorted, it is dangerous, which is why I suggest ordering another Collet and nut. You really don't want a sharp bit, spinning at 20,000 rpm flying out of the collet and tearing up anything or anyone it hits.

You can order a new collet from Bosch direct, I would remove whatever is in the spindle now and replace the collet/nut.

BTW, do not lubricate the collet, it must be dry to get a proper grip on the shank of the bit.
 

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Hi again, in the illustration of the collet,nut and spindle, it isn't really clear that the inside of the spindle is not straight down, but is tapered slightly. When you screw on the nut, you are pushing the collet down and as it does so, the spindle taper presses the collet inward tightly around the shank of the bit.

I think understanding how things work and the proper names of tools is helpful in understanding how to use them and get good results. So here is a diagram of the standard parts of a bit.
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And here is a picture of the profile produced by the most common bits. I find it difficult to visualize the profile a bit will create, and find this chart very handy. You can download it and print it.
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If you're nervous about it, you might do well to find a tool repair service to remove it for you. I personally have no interest in repairing machines. Using them, yes, fixing them, no thank you.
 

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Now that's handled, how about sharing what kinds of projects you like to do, My wife is a pretty good artist, so I wind up making picture frames. Don't do furniture since the house is too full already.
 
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