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Making My First CNC Router, Any Advices ?

1378 Views 10 Replies 7 Participants Last post by  reuelt
Hi Everyone,

I started my dream project CNC Router and I will like to share my experience and learn from others.

I'm planing to build 3axis (4axis in the future) CNC Router 1200mmx1000mm (frame size). I almost finish designing the frame in Fusion 360 (second version because did not like the first when I finish it I will attach picture). All electric components are selected and on order.

Please see below all electronic parts and let me know what you think?

Motors - NEMA 23 Stepper motor 2.4Nm 57x82mm 4A D=8mm
Stepper Motor Drivers - STEPPERONLINE DM542T V4.0. What you think ? should I use 4.50A Peak for the above motor or the lower 3.76A Peak settings ?
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Power Supply Motors - LRS-600-48 MEAN WELL 600W 48VDC 12.5A

Controll Board - DDCS V4.1 - 4 Axis ( Link - )
Power Supply -
Meanwell LRS-100-24 Ultra Thin Power Supply 100W 24V 4.5A

Spindle - MAKITA RT0700CX4 (In future I will like to use G-Penny 110v/220v 1.5kw Water Cooled Spindle Motor ER16 - Link -[email protected]!GBP!£227.67!£[email protected]!66218974852!sh )

Limit Switch
- Mechanical Endstop (Not sure about them ?)

For the XYZ movement I'm planning to use - SFU1204 Set RM1204 Rolled Ball Screw with roller slide bearings
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CAM/CAD Software - Fusion 360

Below is my first project, which is not bad. My new version is totally different in my opinion much better. I will share pictures of version 2 once finish in next 4 weeks.
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Please see below video to see V1 closer.

And at the end apologies for my English ( its my second language)
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Welcome to the forum.
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G'day Emil, welcome to the forum..
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Hi James and Ross
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Nice to have you aboard. Our CNC guys sometimes take a day or two to check in.
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I built my own machine. However, I am not an expert at electronics, and the settings were based on what I found out. However, for the stepper drives, my steppers had an amp draw of 3.5A, so I set the peak to 3.6A. Some of the other experts on here may have a better guidance on that. Checking the instructions on my drivers they state "Normally customers set the current same with the motor rated current". So I am thinking you would want the 3.76A setting.

I used a Mesa controller board for my machine, so I don't know too much about the DDCS, but I know those who use them tend to really like them.

I used mechanical microswitches for my limit switches. There are several ways to wire limit switches. Each STEPPER has its own limit switch pair wired together. My Y Axis has to steppers and ball screws to prevent racking. By also having limits for each stepper, the homing procedure also automatically keeps my Y Axis square to the X Axis. Also, I am able to home all 3 Axis at the same time.

I use ball screws as well, and they work well with minimal backlash. (there will always be some) What are you using for your rails?
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I'm just worried that I could damage the motor if I run on the 4.5A and if I run at 3.76A the motor will not have full power, but I'm also not expert on electronics so I'm not sure I hope someone can advise.

I think I will also go with mechanical microswitches. What disadvantage does mechanical microswitches have compared to others?

I will be using the below linear guide

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I will be honest, those rails don't look very stout. You are building a fairly large machine, I encourage you to look at the various linear rail options out there. I used SBR-20 on my machine and that is a very rigid option, and the blocks themselves have bearings within them.

As for the micro switches, the other option would be proximity sensors. They are little more complex to wire up as they need a power source, but they should be a higher degree of precision with them. That said, the micro switches themselves still carry a lot of precision as well. I use them to square my gantry at start-up every time, and it works great. The biggest drawback, is being mechanical, they will need to eventually be replaced due to wear.
Hi Mike,

Thanks for your reply.
I have bought a sample and it looks quite solid rail with some smooth movement, but I have yet 100% not decided which option should I go with, the below or HGR20 or SBR-20 as you mention.

I will go with the micro switches and in future I might think to upgrade to proximity sensors
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Another disadvantage to microswitches is that they can go out of adjustment easier than proximity switches. Also, if you get chips flying and they impede the mechanism they could fail just when you may need them most. I went with proximity switches in my build for not only reliability but also so that I wouldn't want to come back later and do the upgrade from microswitches.
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I'm just worried that I could damage the motor if I run on the 4.5A and if I run at 3.76A the motor will not have full power, but I'm also not expert on electronics so I'm not sure I hope someone can advise.

Problem solved!
10MM shaft is lots better than 8mm shaft
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